We encourage all prisoners to join the conversation. Your incarcerated friend or family member can reach us at 57 Foster St, Box 2012, Perth, ON, K7H 1R9.

“It would be nice to see a farm system based on Loving Kindness and not exploitation & slaughter. I personally could not be present in any area where animals are being killed. I have suffered a trauma so profound because of the offense I committed that just the thought of seeing any living thing die is unthinkable to me.”

Inmate, Joyceville Institution (Kingston, ON)

“It was a delight to read that your enterprise is looking for alternatives to the standard models of agriculture, while creating an allegory for justice. As a vegetarian, I find your case not only compelling but forward thinking. Keep resilient.”

Anonymous Inmate

“What I would like to see is the collective of federal inmates clearly state that enough is enough. No more to this madness of milking goats for China. No more to this grotesque movement away from rehabilitation. I cannot understand the persistent sponsorship of this program. The government perhaps seriously misjudged the collective opposition it would create.”

Inmate, William Head Institution (Victoria, BC)


“What would the prisoners prefer?”

In 2018, Evolve Our Prison Farms surveyed over 150 prisoners at federal penitentiaries across Canada. Prisoners voted overwhelmingly for sanctuary & green agriculture over dairy. This was before it was revealed that prison farms would produce milk for China.


Have you ever visited a prison slaughterhouse?

The abattoiat Joyceville Institution is located immediately beside the gardens and greenhouses where prisoners nurture life.

Evolve Our Prison Farms has obtained these exclusive photographs offering an inside look at the hidden operations of this draconian prison program.

Prisoners have worked in this slaughterhouse for decades, earning just $3 per hour before deductions. They are not classified as employees and have no standard worker rights or protections. Internal documents obtained by Evolve Our Prison Farms through Access to Information reveal that prisoners are not allowed to quit their jobs.

Over the years, the abattoir has experienced temporary closures due to improper slaughter practices, improper meat handling, drug use, contraband smuggling, money laundering, disrepair, and breach of CSC policies in order to increase the prison labour force to meet financial goals.

Prison sources state that prisoners are not permitted to use the bolt gun to stun animals – this is done by staff – but prisoners hang the animals and use knives to bleed them out and butcher their bodies.

The meat from the abattoir is sold to the private sector. Industry lobbyists claim that the abattoir is an economic necessity for some 350 beef and dairy farms.

According to prisoners, the curving corral that funnels the animals into the slaughterhouse is new because a cow recently broke through the slaughter ramp. The cow escaped capture for six weeks until she was spotted by the prison tennis court, where inmates trapped her. It took another two days to rope the cow, who charged at them in self-defence. After showing such determination to live, the decision was made to not send the cow to slaughter. This demonstrates the transformative power of seeing an individual rather than a unit of “livestock.” 

The Correctional Service of Canada and the beef and dairy industries rely on the exploitation of prison labour for financial gain. Internal documents obtained by Evolve Our Prison farms reveal that CSC’s slaughter program is a top source of institutional revenue. According to Animal Justice lawyer Anna Pippus, slaughter jobs are overwhelmingly filled by vulnerable populations (prisoners, ex-prisoners, migrant workers and temporary foreign workers) who do “the kind of work that most Canadians don’t want to do.”

Over 30% of Canada’s federal prison population is Indigenous. This means that incarcerated Indigenous labourers make up a significant portion of the exploited work force. The Correctional Service of Canada has made attempts to justify this by having Indigenous slaughter workers write testimonies claiming that the work is beneficial to them and consistent with their cultural traditions and beliefs.


The following are reminiscences from former prison farm worker Ricky Atkinson from his memoir The Life Crimes and Hard Times of Ricky Atkinson (2017). As a young man, Atkinson worked at the Frontenac Institution prison cow dairy:

I had never been this close to a cow in my life. All of my assumptions about how soft and cuddly cows were went right out the window when I stepped up behind one, grabbed its shitty tail and got a hard kick in the shins.

I made my way down the line, hating every minute. They kicked me. They crushed me against the stall railings. They shit all over. If you weren’t quick to grab them, they slapped you in the face with their shitty tails.

It wasn’t easy to adjust to being around cows. I’d been on milking duty a couple of weeks when one of the cows stepped on my foot. I began to hit it with punches like a professional boxer. I don’t know why I did it but for some reason I needed to let off some steam. The next day, another cow crushed me against a railing and I rolled a series of punches on its side and on its head.

After a few days of this, the cows would moo and prance around nervously when I came into the barn, making it harder to milk them.

One day, a cow coughed when I was behind it. Green shit flew out of her ass and all over my face. I tore into that cow with my fists. Next thing I knew, the camp boss, Mr Kirby, was standing beside me.

“Atkinson, I knew something was up. Milk production is down. You hit a cow again, I’ll kick your ass.”

Later, Atkinson worked at the Joyceville abattoir:

My immediate job, however, was preparing cows for slaughter. It was my job to decide which seven cows would end up on death row on any given day. It was also my habit, while they waited to head down that ramp to their fate, to read the Bible aloud to them. ….Hearing a voice calmed them and helped me hone my speaking skills. I’d grown up a lot since the days when I was hitting the poor beasts with my fists.


Evolve Our Prison Farms spoke with a social worker in Kingston who has worked with prisoners. She points out that this is a very vulnerable population, people who are already traumatized by the experience of incarceration as well as any former traumas in their life that may have contributed to their incarceration. Involving them in the exploitation of animals, and the forming/breaking of bonds involved in animal agriculture, further traumatizes and re-victimizes this vulnerable population.

One of her colleagues works for a Kingston area food bank. Some years ago this colleague received a call from Joyceville prison saying that they had some meat they could donate to the food bank, but she would have to come pick it up.

To her surprise, she had to enter the abattoir, which was horrifying. The stench, the mess, blood everywhere. The man who met her said they had just slaughtered a cow, so he apologized for the sight and the smell. He handed her a box of raw unpackaged beef to carry out. She describes the whole experience as traumatic.


By Christian C., Editor

In late December 2017, Out of Bounds received a presser from Calvin Neufeld of Evolve Our Prison Farms (EOPF), a Kingston-based coalition of citizens united by concerns about animal agriculture’s profound ethical, ecological and health costs. The possible renewal of Canada’s prison farms represents a unique opportunity to transition from animal agriculture to an “evolved” model centered in ethical and environmentally responsible plant based farming.

In 2009, the Conservative government elected to shutter all six prison farms. They based their decision upon evaluations that the farms were too costly to operate, ill prepared to provide modern job skills, and fit well with its “tough on crime agenda”, as they considered the farms “soft” on prisoners. Inmate advocacy groups criticized the move suggesting that the program offered both rehabilitation programming and life skills training as well as producing food for prisons.

The Liberal government has recently shown interest in restoring prison farms to the former model of animal agriculture, specifically dairy and meat production. This form of agriculture is in clear and direct conflict with rehabilitative and therapeutic goals. It is also an inefficient and environmentally unsustainable form of food production. EOPF has persuasively put forward an alternative model of innovative plant-based prison agriculture, which could be enhanced by farmed animal sanctuary as human-animal therapy. This has advantages environmentally, ethically and financially (costing less for the government to implement and operate, while being better aligned with current job market realities).

Over the past year, EOPF has been meeting with government representatives and we have succeeded in getting our proposal officially on the table under consideration at the highest level. This is a critical time, as a decision is anticipated in the coming months. Mr. Neufeld stated, “We believe that prison farms can form the foundation of a better, healthier, more sustainable and more compassionate future.”

In the meantime, EOPF is working hard to raise public awareness of the issues. Animal agriculture is neither ideal nor necessary to prison farms. It fundamentally undermines the rehabilitative process as it involves prisoners in the manipulation of sexuality (forced insemination), the breaking of familial bonds (separating infants from their mothers), and, of course, slaughter. In Kingston, where the government’s initial focus is, there is still an on-site slaughterhouse where prisoners continue to be trained.

Animal agriculture has been flagged by the United Nations as one of the most significant global contributors to climate change, greenhouse gas emissions, water use, pollution, deforestation and soil degradation, where the consumption of animal products is directly linked to a wide range of illnesses including cancer and heart diseases – the leading causes of death in Canada.

Evolve Our Prison Farms is proposing an alternative to the old prison farm model: innovative plant based agriculture (mixed crops, vegetables, fruit and nut tree plantations, greenhouses, permaculture) and farmed animal sanctuary (permanent, non-exploitive care) for any animals brought onto the farms. This has all the benefits (and more) of the old operations, without the drawbacks and conflicts of animal agriculture. As the government deliberates on which model to adopt, the example Mr. Neufeld and his team have proposed creates an allegory for justice. Environmental justice, animal justice, prisoner justice. These farms can do more than just produce food for prisoners. They can form a symbolic as well as practical foundation for a healthier more sustainable and more compassionate future for us all. Prisoners can lead the way to our better future. There is something truly touching and inspiring about that, and the way prison sanctuary exemplifies the crossroads between incarceration and freedom, in both metaphor and literal application.

Evolve Our Prison Farms sees the benefits of “evolved farming” as:

        – Rehabilitation and reintegration
        – Ecological sustainability
        – Secure and healthy food
        – Caring and connected communities
        – Fiscal responsibility

Regarding the coalition, Franceen Neufeld and her son Calvin, in collaboration with writer and researcher Sue Donaldson of Queen’s University, started Evolve Our Prison Farms. The coalition has grown to include a wide range of supporters across Canada and internationally: farmers, philosophers, environmentalists, animal advocates, social workers, academics, lawyers, former prisoners and more. Even prison abolitionists and Corrections staff find common ground in recognizing the merits of the Evolve proposal. It unifies across personal, professional and political spectrums.

In building a strong evidence based case for the government, EOPF have recruited a number of statements from experts, whose independent research supports our proposal, including criminologists, psychologists, climate change scientists, sanctuary operators and agricultural innovators.

We at OBM firmly support this move and trust that adoption of this model happens quickly. We understand that this is far from a done deal but it is a good news story that we will watch very closely. It is our sincere hope that the Liberal leadership will see to correcting some of the missteps of the previous government, opting for rehabilitative rather than punitive measures.


The following statement was sent to us from a prison slaughterhouse worker at Joyceville Institution. It was originally written for an institutional elder, and reveals the Correctional mindset that humane-washes the “rehabilitation” of prisoners through the exploitation and slaughter of animals. Click here to read our response.

To: Whom It May Concern

During my incarceration, I have worked with, or within, most of the CORCAN farming operations that functioned in the Kingston region. Many of the responsibilities of the farm were not limited to simple maintenance, but also had heavy involvement in preparing the fields, planting, harvesting, milking assistance, birthing calves, removal of carcasses, egg collection, chicken collection, pest/vermin control.

I began working at the abattoir in late November of 2017.

As a man, and even more so, as an aboriginal man, I was brought up with the understanding of the importance of being able to provide for your family and community, in a positive way. While working at the abattoir, I can at least provide for someone’s table. All human-consumable meat is sent along for further processing, the hides are picked up by a tanner, entrails, hooves, heads and such are processed by a local mink and raw dog food producer.

Working at the abattoir provides a position of trust, with daily off perimeter clearance. I’m not just a number, following people around with a bloody mop bucket and a sweat towel.

This position shows the importance of team work in accomplishing a task, in a safe work environment, demonstrating safe knife handling work and proper knife sharpening.

I am more fully able to understand the full cycle of life. Recognizing and realizing the moment when the spirit returns to the spirit world, leaving the physical body behind to fulfill its purpose. Knowing the importance of acknowledging its life and not bringing fear into an animal before harvesting it.

Watching the raven appear, like clock-work, after the render truck has left, and collect its tithe. It gives me a better sense of purpose, with real responsibilities, and removes me, even for a short period of time, from the very mundane, thought numbing, brain killing, drone producing, negative surroundings and attitudes that exist in prison life.


_. _.


By Christian C., William Head Institution (Victoria, BC)

Every inmate should care about being exploited, used as a vehicle to move deals forward from which we receive absolutely no benefit. Do you remember when the farms provided actual benefits like feeding inmates? What are the advantages in slaving away for some multinational when at the end of the day you cannot wash the stink of it out of your clothes; at least you get three bucks for your trouble.

Let us stop pretending and tiptoeing around what it really is. It is just another self-serving example of narrow-minded thinking used to provide opportunities to those with the deepest pockets.

What I would like to see is the collective of federal inmates clearly state that enough is enough. No more to this madness of milking goats for China. No more to this grotesque movement away from rehabilitation. No more selling every last reward to the highest bidder. We are expected to work, deal with the sickening side of processing, and clean up the mess without receiving a drop of milk for ourselves.

I cannot understand the persistent sponsorship of this program. The government perhaps seriously misjudged the collective opposition it would create.

It is a difficult journey working your way through prison life. Adding the burden of offensive and potentially harmful “rehabilitative practices” is tantamount to a kick in the nuts.